Some Chemistry Terms | High School Chemistry Terms

Chemistry same term is a list of terms and definitions relevant to chemistry. These are some chemistry terms.

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What is Absorption?

The passage of one substance into or through another, e.g. an operation in which one or more soluble components of a gas mixture are dissolved liquid. 

What is Adsorption?

An advanced method of treating waste in which activated carbon removes organic matter from wastewater. 

What is Activated carbon? 

A highly adsorbent form of carbon used to remove odorous and toxic substances from liquid or gaseous emissions. In wastewater, treatment rt is used to remove dissolved organic matter.

What is Activated sludge?

Sludge that results when primary effluent is mixed with bacteria-laden sludge and then agitated and aerated to promote biological treatment, this seeds breakdown of organic matter in raw sewage undergoing secondary waste treatment. 

What is Advanced water treatment?

Any treatment of sewage that goes beyond the secondary or biological water treatment stage and includes the removal of nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous and a high percentage of suspended solids. 

What is Aerobic treatment?

A process by which microbes decompose organic compounds in the presence of oxygen and use liberated energy for reduction and growth. Types of aerated treatment include extended aeration, trickling filtration, and rotating biological reactors. 

What is Agglomeration?

The process by which precipitation particles grow larger by collision or contact with cloud particles or other precipitation particles. 

What is Anaerobic?

A process that occurs in, or is not destroyed by the presence of oxygen. 

What is Bar screen?

In wastewater treatment, it Ls a device used to remove large particles. 

What is BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)?

A measure of the amount of oxygen consumed in the biological processes that break down organic matter in water. 

What is Biodegradable?

The ability to break down or decompose rapidly under natural conditions and processes. Biological treatment: a treatment technology that uses bacteria to consume waste. This treatment breaks down organic materials.

What is TOC (Total Organic Carbon)?

A measurement of the amount of carbon in a sample originating from organic matter only. The test is run by burning the sample and measuring the CO2 produced.  

What is Suspended solids?

Small particles of solid pollutants that float on the surface or are suspended in sewage or other liquids. They resist removal by conventional means. 

What is Reverse osmosis?

A water treatment process used in small water systems by adding pressure to force water through a semi-permeable membrane. 

What is Secondary Pre-treatment?

The second step in most public-owned wastewater treatment systems in which bacteria consume the organic parts of the waste. it is accomplished by bringing together waste, bacteria, and oxygen in trickling filters or in the activated sludge process. This treatment removes floating and settable solids and about 90 of the oxygen-demanding substances and suspended solids. 

Disinfection is the final stage of secondary treatment. 

What is Tertiary treatment?

Advanced cleaning of wastewater that goes beyond the secondary or biological stage. it removes nutrients and most BOD and suspended solids. 

What is Settable solids?

Materials heavy enough to sink in the bottom of wastewater treatment tanks. 

What is TSS (Total Suspended Solids)?

Measurement of suspended solids in the wastewater treatment tank. 

What is Volatile Suspended Solids?

The suspended organic fraction will oxidize and will be driven off as a gas at temperature 550. +- 50 C. 

What is Turbidity?

A cloudy condition in water due to suspended silt or organic matter.

COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)

A measure of the oxygen required to oxidize all compounds in water. both organic and in-organic. Chemical treatment: any one of a variety of technologies that use chemicals or a variety of chemical processes to treat water. 

What is Clarifies?

A tank in which solid is settled to the bottom and is subsequently removed as sludge.

What is Coagulation?

A clumping of particles in wastewater to settle out impurities. it Is often induced by chemicals such as lime, alum, and iron salts. 

What is Contaminant?

Any physical, chemical, biological, or radiological substance that has an adverse effect on air, water, or soil.                                         

What is De-chlorination?

Removal of chlorine from a substance by chemically replacing It with hydrogen or hydroxide ions in order to detoxify the substances involved. 

What is Decomposition?

The breakdown of matter by bacteria or fungal. it changes the chemical and physical appearance of materials. 

What is Denitrification?

Anaerobic biological reduction of nitrate-nitrogen gas. 

What is Diffused air?

A type of aeration that forces oxygen into sewage by pumping air through perforated pipes inside a holding tank and bubbling it through sewage. 

What is Mechanical aeration?

Use of mechanical energy to inject air into the water to use a waste stream absorbent oxygen. 

Definitions of Important Chemistry Terms

What is DO Dissolved Oxygen?

The Oxygen freely available in water, it is vital for fish and other aquatic life for the prevention of odors. Secondary and advanced treatments are designed to protect DO in waste-receiving water.

What is Dissolved solids?

Disintegrated organic and inorganic materials contained in water.  

What is Evaporation ponds?

Areas where sewage sludge Is dumped and allowed to dry. 

What is Filtration?

A treatment process for removing solid (particulate) matter from water by passing it through porous media such as sand or a man-made filter. The process is often used to remove particles that contain pathogenic organisms.

What is Ion exchange treatment?

A common water softening method is often found on a large scale at water purification plants that remove some organisms and radium by adding calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide to increase the PH lo a level where the metals will precipitate out. 

What is Heavy metals?

Metallic elements with high atomic weights, e.s. mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, and lead. They can damage living things at low concentrations and tend to accumulate food chain.

 What is Flocculation?

The process by which dumps of solids in water or sewage are made to increase in size by biological or chemical anion so that they can be separated from the water. 

What is Nutrient?

Any substance assimilated by living things that promote growth including nitrogen, phosphorous and other essential and trace elements. 

What is pH?

Measurement of acidity or alkalinity of a liquid or solid material. Organic matter: carbonaceous waste obtained in plant or animal matter and origin a ting from industrial sources. 

What is Primary treatment?

The first steps in wastewater treatment, screens, and sedimentation tanks are used to remove most materials that float or will Settle. it results in the removal of about 30%. carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand from domestic sewage. 

What is Screening?

Using screens to remove coarse floating and suspended solids from sewage. 

What is Sedimentation?

Solids settle out wastewater by gravity during treatment.

What is Skimming?

Using a machine to remove oil or scum from the water surface.              

What is Sludge?

A semi-solid residue from any number of air or water pre-treatment processes. 

What is Stabilization?

Conversion of the active organic matter in sludge into inert, harmless  I Solids): the total amount of dissolved solid material aqueous.

Definitions are relevant to chemistry

What is Acid?

Contains hydrogen (hydroponic) ions. (H) Found from 1-6 on the pH scale (1 being the most acidic, 6 being the least).  

What is Base?

Contains Hydroxide ions. (OH-) Found from 8-14 on the pH scale (14 being the most basic, 8 being the least).  Neutral - equal amounts of (H) and (OH-). Found at 7 on the pH scale.  

What is Buffers?

Chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base.

What is Polar compounds?

Have an uneven distribution of charge.  

What is Hydrogen bond?

The force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a positive charge, and another molecule with a negative charge.  

What is Energy?

The ability to do work. 

What is Chemical reaction?

One or more substances change to produce one or more different substances. Energy is absorbed or released. 

What is Reactants?

Substances you start within a reaction (left of the arrow). 

What is Products?

Substances you end up with after a reaction (right of the arrow). 

What is Activation energy?

The energy required to start a reaction. Compounds - made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions. 

What is Chemical Bonds?

The attractive forces that hold atoms together. 

What is Covalent Bond?

Forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. 

What is Ionic Bond?

Forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. The resulting positive and negative charges cause them to be attracted to each other (bonding). 

What is Ion?

An atom or molecule with an electrical charge. 

What is Molecule?

The simplest part of a substance that retains all the properties that make up its identity.

What is Protons?

Positively charged subatomic particle, part of the nucleus.  

What is Neutron?

A subatomic particle with no charge, other parts of the nucleus. 

What is Electron?

Negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the nucleus. 

Atomic number:- the number of protons an atom has.  

Mass number:- number of protons neutrons.  

Isotopes: 

Atoms of the same element, that have a different number of neutrons.  

Matter:

Anything that takes up space, and has mass. 

Mass:

The quantity of matter an object has. 

Element:

Substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter. 

Atom:

The simplest part of an element that retains all the properties of that element. 

Nucleus:

Central region, and the bulk of the mass of an atom.

Also Read 

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