Calcium Hydroxide Formula, Molar Mass, Uses and Properties

Calcium hydroxide, also known as slaked lime or hydrated lime, is a chemical compound with the formula Ca(OH)2. It exists as an odorless, white powder or crystal that has a subtle bitter taste. This compound is a potent base, having a pH range of 12-13, and it exhibits slight solubility in water.

Calcium Hydroxide Formula

Calcium hydroxide chemical formula is Ca(OH)2, contains one calcium ion (Ca2+) and two hydroxide ions (OH-) per formula unit. 

The chemical structure of calcium hydroxide consists of a calcium ion (Ca2+) surrounded by two hydroxide ions (OH-) that are attached to each calcium ion via ionic bonds.

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Calcium Hydroxide Molar Mass 

The mass of calcium hydroxide is 74.1 g/mol.

The molar mass of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) is calculated by adding the atomic masses of the constituent atoms together. 

Calcium Hydroxide | Definition, Formula, Molar Mass, Uses and Properties

Atomic mass of calcium (Ca) is 40.08 g/mol.

Atomic mass of oxygen (O) is 16.00 g/mol. 

Atomic mass of hydrogen (H) is 1.01 g/mol.

Calculated the molar mass of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2)

Molar mass = (1 × atomic mass of calcium) + (2 × atomic mass of oxygen) + (2 × atomic mass of hydrogen)

Molar mass = (1 × 40.08 g/mol) + (2 × 16.00 g/mol) + (2 × 1.01 g/mol)

Molar mass = 40.08 g/mol + 32.00 g/mol + 2.02 g/mol

Molar mass = 74.10 g/mol.

Calcium Hydroxide Properties

Physical Properties

Appearance: It is a white-colored, and odorless powder.

Crystal structure: The calcium hydroxide structure is a hexagonal shape.

pH: 12-13.

Boiling point: It does not have a boiling point because it decomposes before reaching its boiling point.

Melting point: 580°C.

Solubility: It is slightly soluble in water with a solubility of 1.7 g/liter at room temperature.

Density: 2.21 g/cm³.

Chemical Properties

Basicity: It is a strong base and can react with acids. For example, when it reacts with hydrochloric acid (HCl), it forms calcium chloride (CaCl2) and water (H2O).

 Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + 2H2O

Reaction with carbon dioxide: This calcium reacts with carbon dioxide (CO2), and the hydroxide forms calcium carbonate (CaCO3), a white solid known as a white powder or chalky buildup. 

Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O

Rect with Aluminium: Saturated solution of this Ka reacts with metals like aluminum and dissolves them.

Calcium Hydroxide Uses 

1. It is used in the production of cement and mortar. 

2. For the production of pickling lime for canning and preservation of foods is used. 

3. It is used as a flocculating agent to water treatment. 

4. It is used to prepare some chemicals including calcium stearate and calcium phosphate. 

5. It is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid. 

6. These are used as soil amendments to raise the pH of acidic soils.

How is Calcium Hydroxide Prepared?

Calcium hydroxide is formed when water is added to calcium oxide in a process called slaking. This chemical reaction releases a significant amount of heat and energy.

When calcium oxide reacts with water 

CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2

The resulting calcium hydroxide suspension is filtered to remove any impurities and dried to obtain the final product.

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