Molar Mass of CaCO3, Formula, Properties, and Uses

CaCO3 (as known chalk) is the chemical formula for calcium carbonate. It is a common chemical compound composed of three elements: calcium (Ca), carbon (C), and oxygen (O). Calcium carbonate is found naturally in various forms, including limestone, chalk, and marble. 

It has a wide range of uses in industry, construction, agriculture, and as a dietary supplement. In its purest form, calcium carbonate is a white, odorless powder or solid.

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CaCO3 Formula

Chemical formula of CaCO3 stands for calcium carbonate. It's composed of three elements: calcium (Ca), carbon (C), and oxygen (O). 

Molar Mass of CaCO3, Formula, Properties, and Uses

Molar Mass of CaCO3

Calculating Molar Mass

To find the molar mass of CaCO3, you simply add up the atomic masses of its individual elements. 

Calcium (Ca) has an atomic mass of 40.08 g/mol.

Carbon (C) has an atomic mass of about 12.01 g/mol.

Oxygen (O) has an atomic mass of roughly 16.00 g/mol.


Molar Mass of CaCO3 = (1 x Ca) + (1 x C) + (3 x O)

Molar Mass of CaCO3 = 40.08 g/mol + 12.01 g/mol + 3 x 16.00 g/mol

Molar Mass of CaCO3 = 100.09 g/mol

The molar mass of CaCO3 is 100.09 grams per mole.

Chemical and Physical Properties of CaCO3

Chemical Properties

1. Chemical Formula: CaCO3

Calcium carbonate is composed of one calcium (Ca) atom, one carbon (C) atom, and three oxygen (O) atoms.

2. Molar Mass: The molar mass of calcium carbonate is approximately 100.09 grams per mole.

3. Acid Reactivity: Calcium carbonate reacts with acids, producing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, water, and soluble calcium ions. The chemical equation for this reaction is:

   CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

4. Solubility: Calcium carbonate is sparingly soluble in water. However, it can dissolve in acidic solutions due to the formation of soluble calcium ions and carbon dioxide gas.

Physical Properties

1. Appearance: Calcium carbonate is typically a white, odorless powder or solid. Its appearance can vary depending on its source and purity.

2. Melting Point: It has a relatively high melting point 1,339°C (2,442°F), before it decomposes.

3. Density: The density of calcium carbonate around 2.71 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³).

4. Hardness: It is a relatively soft mineral, with a Mohs hardness of 3, which means it can be easily scratched by harder substances.

5. Crystal Structure: Calcium carbonate can crystallize in several different crystal structures, including calcite and aragonite, depending on temperature and pressure conditions during its formation.

6. Solubility in Water: While it is sparingly soluble in pure water, its solubility increases in water with a lower pH (more acidic).

7. Tasteless and Odorless: Calcium carbonate is tasteless and odorless, which makes it suitable for various applications, including use in antacids and food products.

8. Uses in Construction: Due to its physical properties, calcium carbonate is used in the construction industry to make concrete and mortar, which are essential building materials.

9. Chalk and Limestone: Chalk and limestone are forms of calcium carbonate that are recognizable due to their softness and ease of writing or carving.

Calcium carbonate Uses

Construction: It is a key ingredient in cement and is used in the construction industry for making concrete.

Agriculture: Calcium carbonate is used to neutralize acidic soils in agriculture, which can improve crop growth.

Pharmaceuticals: It is an active ingredient in antacids and calcium supplements.

Environmental Applications: It can be used in water treatment to adjust pH levels and remove impurities.

Food Industry: Calcium carbonate is used as a food additive, particularly in products like baking powder and toothpaste.

Calcium Carbonate Reacts with Hydrochloric Acid

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) does react with hydrochloric acid (HCl). This reaction is a common and easily observable chemical reaction. The balanced chemical equation for the reaction:

CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

In this reaction:

  • Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a solid.
  • Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is a liquid or a dilute solution.
  • Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is a soluble salt that forms as a product.
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is released, which you can often see as bubbles.
  • Water (H2O) is also formed as a product.

The effervescence or bubbling you observe when calcium carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid is due to the release of carbon dioxide gas. 


The molar mass of CaCO3, which is the chemical formula for calcium carbonate, is approximately 100.09 grams per mole. This compound has various properties and important applications in both nature and industry. 


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