Hydrazine Structure, Properties, Molar Mass and Uses

Hydrazine chemical formula is N₂H₄, and is a colorless, flammable liquid with odor similar to ammonia. It is a inorganic compound that has been widely used in various industries for decades.

Lewis Structure 

The Lewis structure for hydrazine (N₂H₄) can be drawn as follows:

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Hydrazine Lewis Structure

N = N

In this structure, each nitrogen atom (N) is bonded to two hydrogen atoms (H), and there is a single covalent bond between the two nitrogen atoms. The lone pairs of electrons on each nitrogen atom are not shown but are present in the structure.

Molar Mass

The molar mass of hydrazine (N2H4) can be calculated by adding the atomic masses of its constituent atoms. 

Nitrogen (N) = 14.01 g/mol.

Hydrogen (H) = 1.01 g/mol.

The molar mass of hydrazine (N2H4) is then:

=(2 × 14.01) + (4 × 1.01)

=28.02 + 4.04

= 32.06 g/mol.

So, the molar mass of hydrazine is 32.06 g/mol.

Properties of Hydrazine -N₂H₄

Here are some key properties of hydrazine:

Molecular Formula N2H4
Physical State Hydrazine is a colorless liquid at room temperature
Melting Point 2°C (36°F
Boiling Point 114°C (237°F)
Density 1.02 g/cm³
Solubility Highly soluble in water, forming a clear, colorless solution
Reactivity Powerful reducing agent, meaning it readily donates electrons in chemical reactions
Toxicity Highly toxic to humans
Stability While hydrazine is relatively stable under normal conditions

Hydrazine is flammable and can ignite in the presence of oxygen

Given its properties, particularly its toxicity and potential hazards, handling and use of hydrazine require strict safety measures and protective equipment. 

Uses of Hydrazine 

Hydrazine is used in various industrial applications due to its unique chemical properties. 

1. It is used as a rocket propellant and is especially valuable in spacecraft to control and adjust orbits. It's known for its high energy density and stability.

2. In power plants and industrial boilers, hydrazine is employed as a reducing agent to remove dissolved oxygen from the boiler water. 

3. It is a key component in the production of various chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, plastics, and agricultural products. 

4. It is used as a reducing agent and in the synthesis of organic compounds.

5. In fuel cell technology, hydrazine can be used as a hydrogen source, providing a clean energy alternative.

6. It is use in the plastics and polymer industry, it is used as a blowing agent to create gas bubbles within polymers, leading to foaming and the production of lightweight materials.

7. It is used in the textile industry as a reducing agent in dyeing processes and for bleaching textiles.

8. It is use in photography as a component in photographic developers.

9. It can be used as a corrosion inhibitor in various applications, including the protection of metals and alloys.


Why do satellites use hydrazine?

Hydrazine use in satellites, because it is a reliable and efficient chemical propellant, providing precise control for attitude adjustments and orbital maneuvers due to its ability to decompose rapidly, producing thrust in a controllable manner.

What is another name for hydrazine?

Another name for hydrazine is diazane.

Why is hydrazine so toxic?

Hydrazine is toxic because it disrupts cellular function and damages the central nervous system.

Does hydrazine react with air?

Hydrazine can react with air, especially under certain conditions. It is flammable and can ignite in the presence of air or oxygen. The reaction is exothermic, meaning it releases heat.


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