Definition of Organic Compounds | Organic Chemistry Topics and Hydrogen Bonding

The branch of chemistry which deal with the study of those compound which contain carbon ( C ) and hydrogen( H ) called hydrocarbon and their derivatives except oxide of carbon, carbonates, bicarbonates, cyanide, etc. is called organic chemistry.

Organic Compound:- These compound which mostly contain carbon and hydrogen and in few case contain other element such as the Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorous, and Halogens.

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Types of Organic Compounds

There are two types of organic compounds on the basis of their origin. (1)- Naturally occurring organic compounds e.g. Coal, Food, Petrol, Natural gas etc. (2)- Synthetic organic compounds e.g. Plastic, Detergents, Medicine etc.

Types of Organic Compounds

Inorganic Compounds:- These compounds which are contain and their derivatives is called inorganic compound. For Exam. HCL, H2SO4, Sodium Chloride, Carbon dioxide, CaCO3, NaHCO3 etc. These are some compounds which contain carbon but they are inorganic i.e. CO, CO2, CaCO3.

Representation of Organic Compound

Organic compound representation by the following ways. (i) Molecular formula (ii) Structural formula (iii) Condensed formula (iv) Dot and cross formula.

(i) Molecular Formula:- The formula which show the actual number of atoms of different element present in one molecule of organic compound is called molecular formula. Example:- Molecular formula of benzene is C6H6. It that benzene has six carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms.

(ii) Structural Formula:- The arrangement of atoms of different element around the carbon atoms present in a molecule of organic compound is called structural formula.

Characteristics of  Structural formula

It show the number and types of atoms present in a molecule and also show the bonding arrangement of atoms. (a) In structural formula all the bonds are shown with their exact number. (b) Single bond is represented by single line ( 一 ) between atoms. (c) Double bond is represented by double line ( 二 ) and triple bond is represented by triple line ( ☰ ) between bonded atoms.

Example:- The structural formula of propane and butane are given below.

structural formula of butane

(iii) Condensed Formula:- The formula where the group of atoms are show in order as they appear with the structural formula with no bond or dashes is called condensed formula. Example: Hexane contain six carbons and fourteen hydrogen, its condensed formula is CH3(CH2)4CH3.

(iv) Dot and Cross Formula:- The structural formula in which electrons are show as dos and cross between various atoms in one molecule of organic compound is called dots and cross formula. Example: The dots and cross formula for methane are given below in which the electrons of carbon are represented by dot ( • ) and the electrons of hydrogen are represented by cross ( ✖ ).

Dot and Cross Formula CH4

Classification of Organic Compound

Organic Compound are mainly classified into two types on the basis of their carbon skeleton. (i) Open chain or acrylic organic compounds. (ii) Closed chain or cyclic organic compounds.

(i) Open Chain Organic Compound 

The organic compound in which carbon atoms are in open chain structure are called open chain or acyclic organic compounds. They are further classified into straight chain and branched chain organic compound.

(a) Straight Chain Organic Compound

the organic compounds which contain straight chain of carbon atoms in their molecule is called straight chain organic compound there common name have prefix (n) with corresponding alkanes. Exp. N-butane ( CH3一CH2ーCH2一CH3 ) and n-pentane ( CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 ).

(b) Branched Chain Organic Compound

The organic compounds in which all carbon atoms are not arranged in a linear sequence but alkyl group in attached to it and form branch structure are called branched chain organic compounds. The name name have prefix ISO with corresponding alkanes.

Branched Chain Organic Compound

(ii) Closed Chain or Cyclic Compound

The organic compound in which carbon atoms are linked together to form closed or ving structure is called closed chain or cyclic organic compound, they are further divided in to two groups. Homocyclic organic compound and heterocyclic organic compounds.

(a) Homocyclic Organic Compounds

The organic compound which in closed chain or structure and the ving consist of only carbon atoms is called homocyclic organic compound. It is further divided in to two types. Ali-cyclic and Aromatic Organic compounds.

• Ali-cyclic organic compounds:- The organic compound which are in closed chain structure forming a ving are called ali-chain cyclic compounds. These organic compounds resembles properties open chain organic chain organic compound but differ in their structure and formulae. 


Ali-cyclic organic compounds

(b) Aromatic Organic Compound

The cyclic organic compounds having alternate single and double bonds in their structure or carbon ving are known as aromatic organic compounds. 

Example:- The important member of this is benzene and other organic compounds that are derived from benzene like naphthalene, anthracene etc. 

Heterocyclic Organic Compounds:- The organic compounds which contain one or more atoms than carbon atoms other than carbon atoms such as Sulphur oxygen, nitrogen in the ving are called heterocyclic organic compounds. 

Classification of Organic Compounds on the basis of Bonds 

Organic compounds are classified into two types on the basis of chemicals bonds present in them (i) Saturated organic compounds (ii) Unsaturated organic compounds.

1. Saturated Organic Compounds

Those organic compounds in which all the carbon atoms are bonded to each other through single covalent bond is called saturated organic compounds. These compounds are also known as alkanes. Example: Methane (CH4), Ethane(C2H6), Propane(C3H3), Butane(C4H8), Pantone(C4H10), etc.

2. Unsaturated Organic Compounds

Those organic compound which contain at least one double or triple covalent bond between carbon-carbon atoms are called unsaturated organic compounds. Alkenes and Alkynes are unsaturated organic compounds.

Alkenes:- The hydrocarbon which contain at least one double covalent bond between carbon-carbon atom is called alkenes.

Alkynes:- The hydrocarbon which contain at least one triple bond between carbon-carbon atom is called alkynes.

Diversity and magnitude of organic compound 

The diversity and magnitude of organic compounds is due to uniqueness of carbon bonding and structure, carbon can from millions of organic compounds due to the following reasons.

(i) Tera-valent:- carbon is tera-valent atom because carbon atom can from a total of four covalent bond 

(ii) Mode of Bonding:- The carbon atom can from a single double, or triple covalent bond in their compound.

(iii) Catenation:- The self linkage ability of carbon atom is called catenation carbon atom have the ability to covalently bonded with other carbon atoms to from straight chain branched chain and ving.

Catenation of organic compound

(iv) Carbon Bonding to other Elements:- Beside catenation carbon atoms can also from bonds with other elements like. O2, N2, S halogen etc.

(v) Arrangement of Atoms:- Different arrangement of carbon atoms from different compounds. Example: The molecular formula of ethanol and dimethyl ether are same (C2H6O) but due to different arrangement of carbon atoms from different compound.

Arrangement of Atoms

(vi) Strength of covalent bond of carbon atoms:- The size of carbon atom is very small due to which carbon atoms from strong covalent bond with each other and with other elements, such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and halogen to from large number of organic compound. 

Characteristics of Organic Compounds

Some of the important characteristic of organic compounds are given below.

(a) Composition of Organic Compound:- Organic compounds mainly composed of carbon, hydrogen, atoms, they also contain oxygen, Sulphur, nitrogen and halogen along with carbon and hydrogen atoms.

(b) Covalent Nature of Organic Compound:- The organic compounds are covalently bonded compounds in nature they are mainly non-polar with few exception.

(c) Solubility of Organic Compound:- Most organic compounds are non-polar and soluble in non-polar solvent like acetone, ether.

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Polar and Non-Polar Bonds: Explanation 

Polar covalent bond

The covalent bond which is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between atoms, having different electronegativities is called polar covalent bond.

Explanation:- When covalent bond is formed between two dissimilar atoms, the electronegativity of one atom is high than other so it attract electron more forward it self and forward a partial negative charge on it while other atom form partial positive charge on it, due to this opposite poles are created and polar bond is forward.

Polar bond formation in HCL

In HCl molecule the Cl is H atoms, there for the chlorine has the tendency to attract the shared paired of electron toward it self by greater force, so chlorine form partial negative charge on it self, while Hydrogen atom formed partial positive charge on it self , so opposite poles are formed in H-Cl molecule and the bond is said to be polar covalent bond, Other example of polar molecule are. H2O, NH3 etc.

Polar bond formation in HCL

Non-Polar Covalent Bond

The covalent bond which is formed? between atoms having same electronegativity is called non-polar covalent bond.

Explanation:- Non-polar covalent bond is formed between two similar atoms in, there for both the atoms attract the shared paired electrons equally due to same electronegativity of toms in non-polar molecule the opposite poles are not created in these bonds. Example: H,2 N2, O2, Cl2, Br2, N2, etc

Non-Polar Covalent Bond

Hydrogen Bonding

The force of attraction between the positive charged hydrogen atoms of one molecule and lone pair of electrons of O, N, or F of the other molecule is called hydrogen bonding.Or a hydrogen bond is the attractive force between highly electron deficient speci Hydrogen atom and nearby highly electron negative atom with lone pair of electrons such as F,O, or N.

Explanation:- Hydrogen bonding is found in all polar molecules which contain N-H, O-H, and F-H bonds such H2O, NH3, HF, etc. When hydrogen is contently bonded to high E.N atoms such as O, N, F, strong positive charge developed on hydrogen atoms and negative charge appear on high electron negative atoms when these molecules close to each other the positive hydrogen of one molecule attract the high electronegative atom of other molecules as a result strong force of attraction is created.

Hydrogen Bonding

Properties of Hydrogen Bonding

Hydrogen bond is stronger than dipole-dipole interaction but weaker than covalent bond. It is about 20 times weaker than covalent bond and ten time stronger than dipole-dipole interaction. Hydrogen bond form long chains and help in the formation of network of molecules. Hydrogen bond is directional.

Application of Hydrogen Bonding

Hydrogen bonding is extremely important in determining the properties of water, biological molecule such as protein, DNA etc. The adhesive action of paints and dyes is developed due to hydrogen bonding. Synthetic resins also bind two surfaces. 

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