The Classification of Compounds in Chemistry

The Classification of compounds in chemistry can be classified generally into two broad groups. 1. Ionic Compound 2. Covalent Compound. In this blog post types of mixtures and different mixtures and compounds are.

1. Ionic Compound

Ionic compounds do not exist in independent molecular form. They form a dimensional crystal lattice in which the ion is surrounded by oppositely charged ions these oppositely charged ions attract each other strongly so ionic so ionic compounds have high melting points and boiling points. These are represented by the formula unit.

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Ionic compounds examples: - C++ , O2++ ,Na++

Which is an ionic compound

2. Covalent Compound

The covalent compound mostly exists in molecular form. A molecular is a true representative of a covalent compound and its formula is called a molecular formula.

Covalent compounds examples:- Water H2O, Calcium Oxide  CaO, sodium Chloride NaCl, Calcium Carbonate CaCO3.

Covalent compounds examples

Define Mixture:- When two or more elements or compounds mix up physically without any fixed ratio, they form is mixture.

Type of Mixture

Genranaly mixtures are two types.

(a) Homogeneous Mixture 

(b) Heterogeneous Mixture

(a) Homogeneous Mixture

Mixtures that have uniform composition throughout e.g. Air, Ice Cream, Gasoline. 

(b) Heterogeneous Mixture 

Mixtures that do not have uniform composition throughout. e.g. Soil, rocks, and wood.

A mixture of Soil:- It is a mixture of sand, clay, mineral salt, water, and air.

A mixture of Air: - It is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, noble gases, and water vapour.

A mixture of Milk: - It is a mixture of water, sugar, fat, protein, mineral salt, and vitamins. 

Difference Between Compound and Mixture 


1) It is formed by a chemical combination of atoms of an element. 

2) The constituents lose their identity and form a new substance. 

3) Compounds always have fixed composition by mass. 

4) The compounds cannot separated by physical means. Every compound is represented by a chemical formula. compounds have homogeneous compositions. Compounds have sharp and fixed melting points.


1) Mixture is formed by the simple mixing up of the substance. 

2) Mixtures do not have a fixed composition. 

3) The components can be separated by physical method. 

4) Mixture shows properties of the constituents. It consists of two or more components and does not have any chemical formula. They are homogeneous and heterogeneous in composition. Mixtures do not have a sharp melting point.

Type of Mixture

How to Write a Chemicals Formula?

Compounds are represented by chemical formulas and elements are represented by symbols. The chemical formula of a compound is written by these steps.

(A) Symbols of two elements are written side in the order of positive ion first and negative ion latter.

(B) The valency of each ion is written on the right top corner of its symbols e,g. Na++, Ca++, O--.

(C) If valencies are similar then they of feet each other and not written chemical formula.

(D) If valencies are dissimilar then the cross exchanged method is applied.

(E) If an ion is a combination of two or more atoms which is called radicals, then valency is written in parenthesis.

Example:- Na+ Cl   =NaCl

Define Elements

It is a substance made up of the same type of atoms having the same atomic number, and cannot be decomposed into simple substances by ordinary chemical means. At present 118 elements are known out of which 92 occur naturally.

Solid:- Majority of the exist as solid e.g. Sodium, Copper, Zinc, gold. 

Liquid:- Few elements which occur in liquid state e.g. Mercury and Bromine.

Gasses:- A few elements exit as a gas state e.g. Hydrogen, Nitrogen. Oxygen. Chlorine.

Gas chemical formula

Define elements based on properties

Based on their properties elements are divided into three types. 1. Metal 2. Nonmetal 3. Metalloids.

Metal: An element that always from a positive ion by losing electrons is called metal. For Example: in Sodium, Silver, and Zinc about 80% of elements are metal.

Nonmetal: An element that is always from a negative ion by gaining an electron is called a nonmetal. For Example: Carbon, Sulfur, Fluorine, and iodine.

Nonmetal element

Metalloids: Elements having physical and chemical properties of both metal and nonmetals For Example: Boron, Silicon, Arsenic, Germanium.


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