Classification of Compounds in Chemistry

Classification of compounds in chemistry can be classified generally two broad groups.

1.0 Ionic Compound

2.0 Covalent Compound

Which is an ionic compound?

Chemistry Definition | Chemistry fundamentals

1.0 Ionic Compound

Ionic compounds do not exist in independent molecular from. They form three dimensional crystal lattice in which ion is surrounded by oppositely charged ion these oppositely charged ion attract each other strongly so ionic so ionic compound high melting point and boiling point. These are represented by formula unit.

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Ionic compounds examples: - C++ , O2++ ,Na++

Which is an ionic compound

2.0 Covalent Compound

The covalent compound mostly exists in molecular form. A molecular is a true representative of a covalent compound and its formula is called molecular formula.

Covalent compounds examples:- Water H2O , Calcium Oxide  CaO, sodium Chloride NaCl, Calcium Carbonate CaCO3.

Covalent compounds examples

Define of Mixture:- When two or more elements or compounds mixup physically without any fixed ratio, they from is mixture.

Type of Mixture

 Mixture is two type (a) Homogeneous Mixture (b) Heterogeneous Mixture

(a) Homogeneous Mixture

Mixture that have uniform composition throughout e.g. Air, Ice Cream, Gasoline. 

(b) Heterogeneous Mixture 

Mixture that do not have uniform composition throughout. e.g. Soil, rocks, and wood.

Mixture of Soil:- It is Mixture of send, clay, mineral salt, water and air.

Mixture of Air: - It is mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, noble gases and water vapour.

Mixture of Milk: - It is the mixture of water, sugar, fat, protein, mineral salt and vitamins. 

Difference between Compound and Mixture 


1) It is formed by chemical combination of atoms of element. 2) The constituents lose the identity and form a new substance. 3) Compounds always have fixed composition by mass. 4) The compounds cannot separated by physical means. Every compound is represented by chemical formula. compound have homogeneous composition. Compound have sharp and fixed melting point.


1) Mixture is formed by the simple mixing up of the substance. 2) Mixture do not have fixed composition. 3) The components can be separated by physical method. 4) Mixture shows properties of the constituents. It consists of two or more components and does not have any chemical formula. They have homogeneous and heterogeneous in composition. Mixtures do not have sharp and melting point.

Type of Mixture

How to Write a Chemicals Formula?

Compounds are represented by chemical formula as elements are represented by symbols. Chemical formula of compound is written by these steps.

(A) Symbols of two elements are written side in the order of positive ion fist and negative ion latter.

(B) The valency of each ion is written on the right top corner of its symbols e,g. Na++, Ca++, O--.

(C) If valencies are similar then they of feet each other and not written chemical formula.

(D) If valencies are dissimilar then the cross exchanged method is applied.

(E) If an ion is a combination of two or more atom which is called radical are used then valency written in parenthesis.

Example:- Na+ Cl   =NaCl

Define Elements

It is substance made up of same type of atoms having same atomic number, and cannot be decomposed into simple substance by ordinary chemical means. At present 118 elements are known out of which 92 occur naturally.

Solid:- Majority of the exist as solid e.g. Sodium, Copper, Zinc, gold. 

Liquid:- Few elements which occur in liquid state e.g. Mercury and Bromine.

Gasses:- A few elements exit as a gas state  e.g. Hydrogen, Nitrogen. Oxygen. Chlorine.

Gas chemical formula

Define of elements on the basis of properties

On the basis of their properties elements are divided to three type. 1. Metal 2. Nonmetal 3. Metalloids.

Metal: An element which always from positive ion by losing electron is called metal. For Example: Sodium, Silver,Zinc about 80% elements are metal.

Nonmetal: An element which always from negative ion by gaining electron is called nonmetal. For Example: Carbon, Sulfur, Fluorine, iodine.

Nonmetal element

Metalloids: An Elements having physical and chemical properties of both metal and nonmetals For Example: Boron, Silicon, Arsenic, Germanium.

Which is a covalent compound?

A molecular is a true representative of a covalent compound and its formula is called molecular formula.


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