Fundamentals of Chemistry notes | Fundamentals of Chemistry

Chemistry Definition:- Chemistry is the branch of science, that deals with the study of matter, its properties, compounds, composition, the structure of elements, and how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances. And chemistry of fundamentals

Define Science (science meaning):- A systematized body of knowledge based on observation and experimentation is called science.

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Fundamentals of Chemistry

Branches of chemistry or chemistry is a branch of science that deals with the study of:- 

The main branches of chemistry are following 

1. Physical Chemistry

2. Organic Chemistry

3. Inorganic Chemistry

4. Biochemistry

5. Industrial Chemistry

6.Nuclear Chemistry

7. Environmental Chemistry

8. Analytic Chemistry 

Physical Chemistry | What is physical chemistry?

The branch of chemistry deals with the relationship between the composition and physical properties of matter along with the changes in them.

Scope of Physical Chemistry;- 1. Structure of atoms. 2. Formation of molecules. 3. Behavior of gases, liquid and solid. 4. Effect of temperature. 5. Effect of radiation on matter.

Organic Chemistry | Organic chemistry basics

The study of Covalent compounds of carbon and hydrogen and their derivates. 

Scope of Organic chemistry: The scope of these branches covers petroleum petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries.

Inorganic Chemistry definition

It deals with the study of all elements and their compounds except those of compounds of carbon and hydrogen and their derivates.

Inorganic chemistry examples

Scope of Inorganic chemistry:- It has application in every aspect of the chemical industry such as glass, Cement, ceramics, leather, and metal-ling. 

Biochemistry | What is the study of biochemistry?

It is a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of the structure, composition, and chemical reaction of substances found in living organisms.

Scope:- it is applied in the fields of medicine, food science, and agriculture.

Short note on industrial chemistry | What is the study of Industrial Chemistry?

The branch of chemistry that deals with the study of manufacturing chemical compounds on a commercial scale are called industrial chemistry.

Scope of industrial chemistry:- It deals with the manufacture of basic chemicals such as Oxygen, Chlorine, Ammonia, Caustic Soda, and HCL Sulfuric Acid, These chemicals Provide raw material for many other industries such as fertilizer, soap, agriculture, product, paints, textiles, and paper.

Nuclear chemistry definition and examples.

The branch of chemistry deals with radioactivity, nuclear process, and properties.

Scope:- It has vast applications in medical treatment, preservation of food, and generation of electric power through nuclear reactors.

Chemistry Definition | Chemistry fundamentals

Environmental Chemistry

The branch of chemistry deals with the component of the environment and the effect of human activities on the water.

Scope:- It is related to other science such as biology, ecology, soil, and water. 

Also Read: Atomic fraction, Volume Fraction and Pressure Fraction Definition and Formula

Analytic Chemistry 

The branch of chemistry that deals with the separation and environment of a sample to identify its components and separate is carried out.

Qualitative analysis: It provides the identity of a substance. It determines the amount of each component present in a sample. 

Define Matter in Chemistry

Anything that has mass and occupies space is called matter e.g. our body, table, chair, salt, sugar, iron, plastic, etc.

Define Substance | Define substance in chemistry

A piece of matter in pure form is called a substance e.g. Gold, Water, Sugar, Sodium Chloride, Copper, Iron, etc.

What Is mixture in chemistry? | What Is mixture in science?

An impure matter is called a mixture e.g. Petrol, Air, Milk, Solid and paper, etc.

mixture of lemon and salt

Physical Properties 

The properties that are associated with the physical state of a substance are called physical properties. For Example:- Color, Smell, taste, and Solubility.

Chemical Properties 

The Chemical portieres depend upon the composition of the substance. When a substance undergoes a change, its composition change, and new substance are formed. For Exam.: Rusting of iron, burning of coal, decomposition of water by passing electric current. 

The difference between Metals and Nonmetals 

Deference between Metals and Nonmetals

>Valence bond theory and Molecular orbital theory

Chemical Properties 

Metals:- Usually have 1-3 electrons in their outer shell. Lose their valence electrons easily. From oxides that are basic. Are good reducing agents. Have lower electronegativities.

Nonmetals:- Usually have 4-8 electrons in their outer shell. Gain or share valence electrons easily. Form oxides that are acidic. Are good oxidizing agents. Have higher electronegativities.

Physical Properties

Metals:- Good electrical conductor and heat conductors. Malleable- can be beaten into thin sheets. The Ductile can be stretched into a wire. Possess metallic luster. Opaque as thin sheets. Solid at room temp.

Nonmetals:- Poor Conductors of heat and electricity. Brittle-if a solid. Non-ductile. Do not possess metallic luster. Transparent as thin sheets. Solid, liquid, or gases at room temp.

>Sampling and Sample Preparation for Analysis


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