Showing posts from January, 2023

Refrigeration and Air Condition System Cycle

Refrigeration means keeping the sequence constant at a lower temperature than the environment. That is, in the refrigeration process, continuous heat is absorbed from the low level and given to the high level. Crude is used in th…

Second Law of Thermodynamics in Terms of Entropy

If a body or engine is taken from one curve to another curve at approximately the same temperature in such a way that dQ of heat is exchanged. This is the second law of thermodynamics in the form of entropy. Change in entropy ds …

When all the Entropy Changes in a Process are Included

When all entropy changes occur in a process, the total entropy change of the universe is always greater than or equal to zero. This is the second law of thermodynamics. In 1850, the scientist Clasius first used the word entropy, …

Derivation of Clausius Inequality Formula

This is a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics, which is true for all possible cycles, including (reversible, irreversible, heat engines, and refrigerators).  We can represent any reversible cycle by a series of Carnot…

Humidity, Relative Humidity, Specific Humidity Definitions

The water vapor present in the atmosphere or the water vapor present in the gas is called humidity. There are many types of humidity such as molal humidity, relative humidity, absolute humidity, saturation humidity, specific humi…

Types of Gas Saturation and Properties of Real Gases and Ideal Gases

When a gas or gaseous mixture comes in contact with a liquid, it takes up vapor from the liquid. This action continues till the vapor pressure of the gaseous mixture at the present temperature becomes equal to the vapor pressure …

Types of Reactants in Chemistry

A substance that takes part in a chemical reaction and changes when mixed with another substance. This post ost the types of Reactants and Reactants definition, like Limiting reactant, Excess reactant, Percent of excess reactant…

Definitions of Atomic fraction, Volume Fraction and Pressure Fraction

This post gives information about the definition and formula of Atomic fraction, Volume Fraction, and Pressure Fraction.  Atomic fraction The atomic fraction of an element in a mixture is the ratio of the number of atoms of that …

Centrifugal pumps are dynamic pressure pumps, they work on the principle of centrifugal force. A centrifugal Pump is a hydraulic machine that converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. It does so with the help of centrifug…

Reciprocating Pump Working, Construction and Uses

The uses, advantages, working, and construction of reciprocating pumps which are as follows. {tocify} \$title={ Table of Contents } Construction of Reciprocating pump  The main parts of the Reciprocating Pump are the cylinder, pis…

What is Types of Pumps?

A pump is a device used to increase a fluid's pressure energy. A liquid pump generally lifts a liquid from a lower level to a higher level. So pumps do some work on the fluid, and to do the work, energy is supplied from an ex…

Define Hydraulic Coefficient of Orifice

The importance of the Hydraulic Coefficient is the three types of coefficients in fluid mechanics used to the coefficient of Contraction, coefficient of velocity, and coefficient of discharge, the relation between Cd. Coefficient…

Rectangular Notch or Shesporested Weir Formula

Due to the contraction at the edge of the notch or weir, the value of actual discharge is theoretically reduced. Derivation of Notch and Weir formula by immersion of velocity. Let the discharge constant be Cd  {tocify} \$title={ …

Pitot Tube Working Principle and Pitot Tube Derivation

The pitot tube is the simplest form of Bernoulli. It is used to measure the speed of fluid flow in an open tube. It is an L-shaped bent glass tube open at both ends. Pitot Tube Working Principle {tocify} \$title={ Table of Content…

Venturi Meter Construction, Working Principle and Equation Derivation

It is a device (V enturimeter ) with the help of which the rate of flow of liquid in a pipe can be determined at any point. With its help, discharge can be measured in horizontal, vertical, and inclined pipes.  Cover in this post…

Orifice Meter Construction, Working Principle and Derivation

A hole with a sharp edge on a long plate is called an orifice. A plate with this type of hole is called an orifice plate, and now this plate is used to measure the discharge of a liquid. So it is called an  orifice meter .  {toci…

What is Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)?

The difference between total head and vaporize pressure at the inlet is called not the positive suction head (NPSH). This is used to avoid cavitation in the pump.  NPSH Equation Derivation Let pressure z1 be the static suction l…