Copper Compounds and Uses

Copper is a light-red metal that is soft, malleable, and ductile. Moderately concentration nitric acid (8M) dissolves copper readily. Some important compounds of copper class 11.

3Cu+8HNO3 → 3Cu2+ +6NO3- +2NO + 4H2O

There are two series of copper compounds. Copper(I) compounds are derived from the red copper (I) oxide Cu2O and contain the copper (I) ion in water, and their behavior generally resembles that of the silver(I) compounds. They are readily oxidized to copper(II) compounds, which are derivable from the black copper(II) Oxide, CuO. 

Copper(II) compounds, which contain the copper(II) ion, Cu++. Copper salts are generally blue both touristic really for the teraaquocucuparate(II) ion (Cu(H2O)4)++ only.

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oxidized to copper

(A) Copper (I) Oxide (Red oxide copper): 

Uses of Red oxide.

1. It is used in making ruby-red glass.

2. It is used in making anti-rust paints.

3. It is used in the preparation of CuCl2

(B) Copper (II) oxide (Black oxide of copper):

Uses of black oxide.

It is used in making colored glass.

It is used to remove sulfur from petroleum.

Molar Mass of Copper

The molar mass of copper (Cu) is 63.55 grams per mole. 

To calculate the molar mass of copper, look up its atomic mass on the periodic table, which is 63.55 atomic mass units (amu). 

Since one mole of any element has Avogadro's number of atoms (6.022 x 10^23), the molar mass of copper is equal to its atomic mass in grams per mole.

Molar mass of copper = 63.55 g/mol The molar mass of copper is about 63.55 grams per mole.

Chemistry of copper sulfate (Blue vitriol) CuSO4

Copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) is commonly known as blue vitriol.

Preparation of Copper Sulphate

When copper scrapes are treated with hot and dil. sulphuric acid in presence of air, copper sulfate is formed which on crystallization gives blue vitriol. 

2Cu + H2SO4 + O2 → 2CuSO4 + 2H2O

CuSO4 Crystallization → CuSO4.5H2O

Properties of Copper sulfate

1. It is a blue crystalline solid readily soluble in water.

2. Action of heat: When blue vitriol is heated at 100 °C. it becomes monohydrate, at 250 °C it becomes anhydrous on further heating strongly to about 750 °C it decomposes to give black oxide of coppers.

3. With alkali: Copper sulfate reacts with caustic soda or caustic potash to give a bluish-white receipt of cupric hydroxide.

CuSO4 + 2NaOH → Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4

4. Action with Ammonia: When NH3 is added to CuSO4 solution, a bluish-white ppt. of Cu(OH)2 is formed which dissolves in excess ammonia forming tetra amine copper (II) sulfate which is commonly known as Schweitzer reagent.

CuSO4 + 2NH4OH  → Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4

Cu(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 + 2NH4OH → [ Cu(NH3)4]SO4 + 4H2O

Tetra amine copper(II) sulfate (deep blue)

5. Action with potassium iodide: When KI is added to a solution of CuSO4, a dark brown ppt of cuprous iodide is precipitated.

CuSO4 + KI → K2SO4 + Cu2I2 + I2

This reaction is used to estimate the Cu++ ion in the qualitative analysis. On adding sodium thiosulphate solution to the above product, iodine gets reduced by thiosulphate, and only a white ppt. of Cu2I2 will be observed.

Na2S2O3 + I2  →   NaI + Na2S4O6

Uses of Copper Sulfate.

1. It is used for electroplating and electrorefining of copper.

2. It is used as an antiseptic.

3. It is used as a laboratory reagent.

4. It is used as a germicide in agriculture.

5. It is used weedicide in swimming pools and water reservoir tanks.

black copper(II) Oxide

Copper Compounds

1. Copper Naphthenate:- The manufactured either from copper naphthenic acid and sulfate in reaction with an alkali or by heating copper oxide and naphthenic acid. It is used as oil-based wood as the rot-proofing agent.

2. Copper cyanide:- The manufactured copper cyanide from sodium cyanide with react copper sulfate. It is used for copper electroplating.

3. Cupric Chloride:- It is used as a mordant in calico printing and drying.

4. Cupric nitrate:- This is produced by dissolving copper carbonate in nitric acid or direct from copper and nitric acid. used ceramics.

5. Anhydrous and mono-hydrated copper sulfate:- It is used as agricultural and fungicides as well as for the production of a number of copper compounds.

6. Copper Soaps:- They are as used in paints as they are soluble in oils and white spirits.

7. Copper Oxychloride

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